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The war of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain from June 1812 to December 1814 when the peace treaty was signed. It was in fact a war that once and for all confirmed American Independence. From the end of the American Revolution in 1783, the United States had been irritated by the failure of the British to withdraw from American territory along the Great Lakes. Since this conflict did not end peacefully, the United States declared War on Great Britain on June 12, 1812. Even though United States did not win some of the battles, it did win most of the important battles, making it the winner of the war of 1812. The Battle of Plattsburgh also known as the Battle of Lake Champlain ended the final invasion of the Northern states during the War of 1812.
The Americans were out numbered and out gunned, but they managed to defeat 11, 000 British military units strategically. The victory of Lake champlain denied the British any leverage to demand exclusive control over the Great Lakes and any territorial gains against the New England states. The Battle of Lake Champlain proved that under limited leadership and amateur military units, Americans could stand on their own against British invasions. Battle of Baltimore was one of the turning points in the War of 1812. American forces defended against a combined British land and sea invasion of the busy port city of Baltimore. The British army of 5000 landed as planned, marched toward Baltimore but Baltimore had been well fortified, it had 15, 000 military units and they were supplied well.
The British forces were crushed by the heavy defence of Americans and they had to retreat before they lost any more troops. They sailed off to regroup before the next assault on America at the Battle of New Orleans. The last famous battle was the Battle of New Orleans. On January 8, 1815, American forces, under General Jackson, determinedly defeated the British forces trying to capture New Orleans. Even though the treaty of Ghent was signed two weeks earlier, the news did not reach the battle-front in time to prevent this battle.
But it had turned out to be the most decisive American victory of the war. With only around 70 casualties, Americans had gained glory. The victory was celebrated with great enthusiasm in the United States, and gave General Jackson the reputation of a war hero. All of the battles stated above have made what America is today.
The United States gained worldwide respect for managing to withstand Britain. The morale of the citizens was high because they had fought one of the great military powers of the world and managed to survive. The War of 1812 had a dramatic effect on the manufacturing capabilities of the United States also... All of these factors make the United States of America the winner of the war of 1812.
Free research essays on topics related to: british forces, great lakes, war of 1812, lake champlain, american forces
Research essay sample on War Of 1812 Lake Champlain
At the beginning of the 19th century, the United States was a developing nation. Although twenty years had passed since the end of the American Revolution, the country had not yet achieved economic independence. The French Empire, ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte, controlled most of mainland Europe. Great Britain was among the few nations free from French domination. With trade suspended between the warring countries, neutral America had a commercial advantage: her merchants could supply both sides.
Closely entwined with the questions about the rights of neutrals to trade with European belligerents, the British practice of impressing American merchant sailors stands as one of the central grievances leading up to the War of 1812. By 1811, the British Royal Navy had impressed at least 6,000 mariners who claimed to be citizens of the United States. In addition to impressments, Americans were dismayed by British agitation of the native population on the western frontier. Congress declared war on June 18, 1812.
Constitution and the War
USS Constitution fought and won three major engagements during the war. Her most famous battle was against HMS Guerriere. Two months after the declaration of war, Constitution, commanded by Captain Isaac Hull, sailed from Boston to harass British shipping near Halifax. On August 19, 1812, Constitution approached Guerriere, holding her fire until she was along side, then fired a devastating broadside. After a few short minutes, Guerriere’s masts were shot away and plunged into the sea. It was during this battle, a sailor saw a British shot bounce off Constitution‘s hull and cried, “Huzza! Her sides are made of iron!” Thus her famous nickname was born.
Other Major Moments of the War
• The White House and Capitol were burned to the ground during the invasion of Washington, D.C. First Lady Dolley Madison garnered fame for saving a portrait of George Washington before flames engulfed the president’s home.
• In 1814, Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star Spangled Banner” while watching the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor.
The End of the War
The War of 1812 ended in a stalemate. The treaty of Ghent signed on December 24, 1814 returned all territorial conquests made by the two sides. It did not address the issue of impressment, one of the major causes of the war. However with the downfall of Napoleon and peace in Europe, the Royal Navy no longer needed so many sailors. Despite the inconclusive ending, later-day Americans often regarded the post war period as prosperous. With the advent of peace came decades of stability, improved diplomatic relations and economic growth, the so-called “Era of Good Feelings.” A sense of self-confidence pervaded the nation, and it inspired the western expansionism that characterized the rest of the nineteenth century. The War of 1812 allowed the new nation to break free of its colonial past, and told the nations of Europe that a new player had emerged on the world stage. As British diplomat Augustus J. Foster acknowledged at war’s end, “The Americans . . . have brought us to speak of them with respect.”