Sample Bibliography Page Cms

Bibliography

The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. The word bibliography has many meanings, and if often used to describe all the works written on a particular subject. When you title this section of your paper, use one of these:

  • Selected Bibliography (if you list all of the sources you consulted in writing your paper)
  • Works Cited or References (if you list only the items you actually cited in your paper).

Contents of this page

Formatting your bibliography

While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways:

  • Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized. The author's last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
  • Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods. (Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.)
  • Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
  • The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.

Sample bibliography

A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) The entries are the same as those used in the notes.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, 20 April 2012.

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Bibliography entry: Book

1 author, first edition

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1 author, later edition

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

1 author, reprinted book

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

More than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

No author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Anthology with editors in place of authors

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Chapter in an edited collection

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History, edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Article

Article in a journal

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity." College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Book review

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Newspaper article

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Encyclopedia

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that well-known encyclopedias should be cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. These examples demonstrate how to compose a bibliographic reference for encylopedia entries that are known to be written by a specific author and for entries by no known author.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Interview by writer of research paper

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.

Secondary source

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Performance or DVD

Live performance

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

DVD

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Dissertation

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." PhD diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Lecture

Young, Morris. "What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?" Lecture for Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.

Conference presentation

Roberts, Mary Louise. "The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013.

Government document

Congressional Record. 71st Cong., 2d sess., 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Online Source

Online source that is identical to a print source

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Online newspaper

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times, May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Website

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Go to Author-Date: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography system. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same sources. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, follow the Author-Date link above.

Book

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

For more examples, see 14.103–5 and 14.106–12 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Translated book

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

E-book

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For more examples, see 14.159–63 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Journal article

In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

For more examples, see 14.168–87 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

Note

For more examples, see 14.188–90 (magazines), 14.191–200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Book review

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Interview

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Thesis or dissertation

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For more examples, see 14.205–10in The Chicago Manual of Style. For multimedia, including live performances, see 14.261–68.

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

Text

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entry

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

Note

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